Member of the research group Micro/Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Applications at the research center Algoritmi 



Thermoelectric energy scavenging microsystem

MEMS Micro-Antennas for Wireless Biomedical Devices

NFCE-New Functions of Capsule Endoscope

MAP - Microchip Analizador de Proteinas

FlexSolar - Flexible energy harvesting film for stand-alone microsystems



Projects at University of Minho (2002- now)

 1 Micropyrometer

Consortium LEICA/UM (DEI, Tecminho, Dept. of Physics) sponsored by Agência de Inovação, 2004-2007


The aim of this project is to realize a miniaturized self-calibrated pyrometer to detect infrared radiation in order to measure the real temperature of objects without contact. The microsystem consists of a thermally insulated absorbing area and two thermopiles (p-polysilicon/n-polysilicon thermocouples) with the hot junctions in the absorbing area and the cold junctions on a heat sink (i.e. the silicon bulk). The complete microsystem is in silicon planar technology and each thermopile has a different reference temperature, biased by a Peltier microstructure (e.g. doped polysilicon or chromium-nickel strip) near to the cold junction of the thermopile. A silicon die passivated with a silicon nitride membrane is the groundfloor of all microsystem. The absorbing area, a black gold strip on the silicon nitride membrane is obtained by anisotropic etching of the bulk silicon from the back of the wafer (with KOH). Moreover, since circuitry can be integrated on the same chip, the advantages of a fully integrated solution become available.


Journal Publications:

L. M. Goncalves, C. Couto, P. Alpuim, D. M. Rowe, J.H. Correia, Thermoelectric microstructures of Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 for a self-calibrated micro-pyrometer, Journal Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. , pp., full paper in Acrobat PDF, Elsevier Science 2006.

Conference Publications:

L. M. Gonçalves, L. G. Gomes, S. F. Ribeiro, C. Couto, J.H. Correia, A miniaturized self-calibrated pyrometermicrosystem, Eurosensors XVII, pp.568-569, full paper in Acrobat PDF, 21-24 September 2003, Guimarães, Portugal.

L. M. Goncalves, C. Couto, P. Alpuim, D. M. Rowe, J.H. Correia, Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2Te3 / Sb2Te3 Thin Films, in Proc. Materials 2005, full paper in Acrobat PDF,Aveiro, Portugal, pp. 1-5, March 20-23, 2005.

L. M. Goncalves, C. Couto, P. Alpuim, D. M. Rowe, J.H. Correia, Thermoelectric Microstructures of Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 for a Self-calibrated Micropyrometer, in Proc. Transducers 2005, pp. 904-907, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Seoul, Korea, June 5-9, 2005.


Luís Gonçalves (DEI)
Pedro Alpuim (DF)
Carlos Corsino (Tecminho-UM)
Miguel Leão (LEICA) 
José Higino Gomes Correia (DEI)
PI: Carlos Alberto Caridade Monteiro Couto (DEI)

2-  Thermoelectric energy scavenging microsystem”, PTDC/EEA-ENE/66855/2006,

Supported byFundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, started 1st September 2007


This project purposes a new global approach for power generation, by associating a Seebeck thermo generator with thin-film integrated batteries used
as energy reservoir in an ultra-low consumption power management device.
The expected original contributions are
• The fabrication of thermoelectric
 microgenerators in a reproducible way with standard microsystem technologies.
• The use co-deposition of the
 tellurides avoiding more complex and expensive systems (MOCVD).
• To achieve a power density of 2-20 mW/cm2, with a temperature gradient of 3-10 ºC.
• Require a minimum temperature gradient of 3 ºC for powering wireless sensors.
• The integration of thermoelectric
 microgenerators, microelectronics and solid-state battery in the same device.
• To use on-chip rechargeable thin-film Li-ion battery and DC-DC converter.
• Use Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 materials for thermoelectric energy harvesting rather than for conventional
 Peltier cooling.


Journal Publications:

J H Correia, Editorial Journal Micromechanics and Microengineering, IOP, Vol. 18, Nº6, Guest Editor of special issue of JMM, full paper in Acrobat PDF, pp.1, June 2008.


L. M. Goncalves, C Couto, P Alpuim, J H Correia, Thermoelectric micro converters for cooling and energy-scavenging systems, Journal Micromechanics and Microengineering, IOP, pp.1-5, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Vol. 18, Nº6, June 2008.


L. M. Goncalves, J G Rocha, C Couto, P Alpuim, J H Correia, On-Chip Array of Thermoelectric Peltier Microcoolers, Journal Sensors and Actuators A, Vol.145-146,  pp. 75-80, full paper in Acrobat PDF, August 2008, Elsevier Science 2008.


L. M. Gonçalves, C. Couto, J. H. Correia, Optimization of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films deposited by co-evaporation on polyimide for thermoelectric applications, Vaccum, vol. 82, pp.1499-1502, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Elsevier Science August 2008.


J.P. Carmo, L.M. Goncalves, and J.H. Correia, "Improved p- and n-type thin-film microstructures for thermoelectricity", Electronic Letters, Vol. 45, No. 15, pp. 803-805, IP=1.140., full paper in Acrobat PDF, July 2009.


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, A. F. Silva, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia"A thin-film rechargeable battery for integration in stand-alone microsystems", in Procedia Chemistry, 2009, Elsevier Science, pp. 453-456. Full paper in Adobe PDF, September 2009.


Conference Publications:

L.M. Goncalves, A. Ferreira da Silva, H.R. Silva, Rui Rocha, C. Couto, P. Alpuim, J.H. Correia, Thermoelectric micro converters for cooling and energy scavenging, Proceedings of the XVIII Conference MicroMechanicsEurope (MME), full paper in Acrobat PDF, Guimaraes, Portugal, pp. 391-394, September 16-18, 2007.

L.M. Goncalves, H.R. Silva, Rui Rocha, P. Alpuim, J.H. Correia, Thermoelectric thin-films for microcoolers and energy scavenging microsystems, Proceedings of NanoSpain2008, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Braga, Portugal, pp. 1-2, April 14-18, 2008.

L.M. Goncalves, Rui Rocha, A F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. Alpuim, J.H. Correia, A human-body thermoelectric energy scavenging microsystem, Proceedings of MME 2008, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Aachen, Germany, pp. 49-52, September 28-30, 2008.


J. P. Carmo, J. H. Correia, "A wireless EEG acquisition system with thermoelectrics scavenging microdevice",  full paper in Acrobat PDF, pp.380-383, Proc. Biodevices 2009, Porto, Portugal, 14-17 January 2009.


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, A. F. Silva, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia, "Integrated thin-film rechargeable battery in a thermoelectric scavenging microsystem", in Proc. Powereng 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, full paper in Acrobat PDF,  pp. 359-363, 18-20 March, 2009.


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, A. F. Silva, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia, "Sputtered SnO2 for application in thin-film solid state microbatteries", in Proc. Materiais 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 April, 2009, pp. 1-5. Full paper in Adobe PDF.


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, A. F. Silva, L. M. Gonçalve, P. M. Mendes, J. H. Correia, "Low-power wireless microsystemsfor use with thermoelectric scavenging systems", in Proc. Wireless Telecommunications Symposium 2009, Praga, RepublicaCheca, 22-24 Abril 2009, Session D-2, pp. 1-7. Full paper in Adobe PDF


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, A. F. Silva, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia"A thin-film rechargeable battery for integration in stand-alone microsystems", in Proc. Eurosensors 2009, Lausanne, Switzerland, 6-9 September 2009, pp. 453-456. Full paper in Adobe PDF.


J. P. Carmo, R. P. Rocha, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia, High-resolution miniaturized stereoscopic image sensor in CMOS technology for endoscopic capsules with integrated battery, Proceedings of MME 2009, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Toulouse, France, pp. A23(1-4), September 20-22, 2009.


L.M. Goncalves , R. P. Rocha, J.P. Carmo, J.H. Correia, Solid-State Microcoolers and Thermal Energy Harvesting Microsystems, Proceedings of IECON 2009, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Porto, Portugal, pp. 4076-4080, November 2-5, 2009.

 R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmo, L. M. Goncalves, J. H. Correia, An energy scavenging microsystem based on thermoelectricity for battery life extension in laptops, Proceedings of IECON 2009, full paper in Acrobat PDF, Porto, Portugal, pp. 1827-1830, November 2-5, 2009.



Luís Gonçalves (DEI)
Pedro Alpuim (DF)
João Paulo Carmo (IPB)
Luis Rocha (FEUP-UP) 
José Afonso (DEI)
Carlos Alberto Caridade Monteiro Couto (DEI)
PI: José Higino Gomes Correia (DEI)


3 - MEMS Micro-Antennas for Wireless Biomedical Devices 

Funding: FCT/PTDC/EEA-TEL/65286/2006, 130.000€


Design, fabrication and characterization of an electrically very small antenna using a MEMS structure. The project will allow to fully understand the bi-directional radiating properties and to optimise the radiation properties from an oscillating beam or cantilever. The driving properties of a piezoelectric material will be explored to obtain structures with large and bi-directional displacement. All the research will focus on low-power, low-size devices, as well the requirements to be used in a post-process module compatible with integrated circuit (IC) fabrication.


Paulo Mateus Mendes

Inv. Responsável


Luis Miguel Valente Gonçalves



José Higino Gomes Correia



José Gerardo Vieira da Rocha



Luis Alexandre Machado da Rocha



Ricardo Xavier Pires Lameiro





4. NFCE-New Functions of Capsule Endoscope

 (consortium UM-DEI, IAITI, Emilio Azevedo Campos Ltd,) sponsored by Agência de Inovação

Starting date: 1 January 2010

End date: 31 December 2012


Luís Gonçalves (DEI)
Paulo Mendes (DEI)
Graça Minas (DEI)
Carlos Silva (DEI) 
Carlos Lima (DEI)


5 MAP - Microchip Analizador de Proteinas,

SI à Investigação e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico – Projectos de I&DT Empresas Individuais e em Co-promoção, QREN-ADI, Duração do Projecto: 1 Março de 2009 a 28 Fevereiro de 2011.

Responsável do Promotor Universidade do Minho: Graça Minas. Restantes Promotores: Instituto Agilus de Inovação em Tecnologias de Informação S.A.; Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil EPE; Emilio de Azevedo Campos S.A. (financiamento global: 512 563,95 €, financiamento UMinho: 269 406,32 €).



O objectivo principal do projecto MAP é desenvolver um biochip portátil, descartável capaz de determinar a concentração de diversas substâncias bioquímicas nos fluidos humanos a baixo custo, sem a necessidade de recorrer a equipamentos sofisticados e caros, tais como os aparelhos espectrofotométricos ou auto - analisadores bioquímicos, com a possibilidade de ser utilizado como dispositivo clínico de diagnóstico num Ponto de Cuidados (PDC).



6. Flexible energy harvesting film for stand-alone microsystems,

PTDC/EEA-ELC/114713/2009, 82.867€

Started March 2011


An efficient energy scavenging system was proposed, offering an autonomous power source: a flexible thin film device for photovoltaic (PV) energy scavenging that integrates a solar cell, a lithium battery and electronics for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and battery charge. The film is composed of three parts:
• A flexible thin-film photovoltaic cell.
• A flexible rechargeable solid-state lithium battery, fabricated by planar thin-film technology.
• A flexible surface-mount (SMD) electronic circuit, for DC-DC conversion and power management that can also include application electronics for monitoring purposes.


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Projects at Idite-Minho (1993- 2002)